Treaty between the USSR and the USA on the elimination of INF
Treaty between the USSR and the USA on the elimination of their intermediate-range and shorter-range nuclear forces (INF) was signed on 8 December 1987 in Washington, DC (USA), General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President Ronald Reagan.
The Treaty entered into force on 1 June 1988, and prior to the termination of its action on 2 August 2019 as a result of unilateral withdrawal from the United States was of a permanent character.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the practical implementation of the agreement, in addition to Russia and USA, was carried out by Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.
In accordance with the agreement, the parties committed themselves not to produce, not to test and not to deploy ballistic and cruise land-based missiles of medium (1,000 to 5,500 kilometers) and shorter (500 to 1,000 kilometers) range. In addition, the parties within three years pledged to destroy all launchers and rockets of terrestrial basing with radius of action from 500 to 5500 kilometers.
By 1991, the liquidation was subject to Soviet ballistic medium-range missiles (IRBM), type Pioner, R-12, R-14 (according to the classification of the US and NATO, respectively, SS-20, SS-4 and SS-5), cruise missiles, land-based (CMB) RK-55 (SSC-X-4 Slingshot) and ballistic shorter-range missiles, the OTR – 22 (SS-12M Scaleboord) and OTR-23 "Oka" (S-23 Spider).
In the United States was envisaged to eliminate medium-range ballistic missiles "Pershing-2" (Pershing-2), krnb BGM-109G, as well as shorter-range missiles (RMD) "Pershing-1A" (Pershing-1A).
In may 1991, the Treaty was fully implemented. The Soviets eliminated 1752 ballistic and cruise missiles, ground-based, USA – 859.
The elimination of the Soviet missiles was carried out by blast (complete destruction of the rockets), while 72 IRBM "pioneer" was eliminated by the method of the start with field positions.
The elimination of U.S. missiles "Pershing" was conducted by burning with the conservation of the compartments of the control system that was used in the production of target missiles of average range.
Was eliminated technological equipment for the production of missiles, as well as operating bases and the training of specialists (117 Soviet facilities and a 32 – American).
In order to monitor the performance of a Contract for the first 13 years of parties were carried out on-site inspections, including on a permanent basis at the entrance points of the production facilities – Votkinsk engineering plant (Udmurtia) and the plant "Hercules" in the city of Magna (Utah, USA).
The issues of implementation of Treaty obligations, agree on measures to improve the viability and effectiveness of the Treaty was considered in the Special control Commission (JCC). By October 2003, held 29 sessions of the CCM. The Commission for a long time (for 2016) is not convened in connection with the completion of the implementation of measures that required verification under the Treaty.
12 October 2007 at the meeting of Ministers of foreign Affairs and defence of Russia and the U.S. Russian President Vladimir Putin put forward the idea of giving the obligations under the INF Treaty global in nature. The American side supported the proposal.
25 October 2007 at the 62nd session of the UN General Assembly had been circulated a joint Russian-American statement on the INF Treaty. In it, in particular, called on all interested countries to discuss the possibility of imparting a global character to the INF Treaty obligations by refusing to ballistic and cruise land-based missiles with a range of 500-5500 kilometers.
At the plenary session of the Conference on disarmament in Geneva on 12 February 2008, Russian foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has proposed to start a joint search for optimal ways of moving this initiative forward. He also made at the expert discussion of the draft Basic elements of an international legal agreement on the elimination of intermediate-range and shorter-range (ground-launched) missiles, open for broad international accession. Despite the efforts of Russia, the further practical development of this initiative has not received.
Since 2013, the United States began to press Russian claims in violation of the INF Treaty.
The American side argued that adopting a Russian cruise missile ground-based (CMB) 9М729 is prohibited under the Agreement range in the range of 500-5500 kilometers. The Russian side denies it.
Despite the insistence of Russia, the US refused to specify the circumstances that formed the basis for their claims.
The Russian side also has a claim against the United States in the context of compliance with the INF Treaty. They are as follows:
- unlawful unilateral withdrawal from the INF Treaty coverage of shock unmanned aerial vehicles, the appropriate range is fully covered under the Treaty definition of "cruise missile ground-based"