Scientists have confirmed that before our Universe existed something
American scientists using mathematical tools described heterogeneity of relict cosmic radiation, which arose immediately after the birth of the Universe. The authors believe that their results confirm the correctness of the hypothesis of the Big bounce, according to which the emergence of our Universe was the result of the collapse of a "previous" universe. The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters.
While the theory of General relativity explains a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological phenomena, some properties of the Universe remain a mystery. In particular, it cannot explain the uneven distribution in space of galaxies and dark matter.
Employees of the University of Pennsylvania since 1980-ies develop cosmological paradigm based on the idea of loop quantum gravity. This paradigm, called loop quantum cosmology, describes all modern large-scale structure in the Universe as a quantum fluctuation of space-time that occurred during the birth of the world.
According to conventional Big Bang theory it all started with a singularity — a state in which all matter and energy was compressed into a single point. Then, in the first fractions of a second, in the period called inflation, space ballooned to enormous size. But the Big Bang theory doesn't explain what was before the singularity, so this state cannot be described from the point of view of the laws of physics and mathematics.
Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania held an alternative hypothesis of the Big bounce, according to which the current expanding universe originated from a super compressed mass of the universe the previous phase. To describe this state they are using universal mathematical device that combines quantum mechanics and relativity.
The origin of the Universe structure the authors see to the smallest inhomogeneities that are fixed in the relict background microwave cosmic radiation, which was emitted when the Universe was only 380 thousand years.
But this radiation has three mysterious anomalies, which are difficult to explain using classical physics. These deviations are so serious that many physicists began to talk about the crisis in cosmology.
In the new study, scientists argue that, in terms of loop quantum cosmology description of inflation eliminates two major anomalies in the distribution of CMB.
"Using the loop quantum cosmology, we naturally allowed two of these anomalies, avoiding potential crisis — presented in a press release of the University the words of one of the authors of the study Danhui Jong (Donghui Jeong), associate Professor of astronomy and astrophysics. The presence of these anomalies suggests that we are living in exceptional Universe."
The authors believe that the heterogeneity of the CMB are the result of unavoidable quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. During the phase of accelerated expansion — inflation, these initially tiny fluctuations were stretched under the influence of gravity, reflected in the observed inhomogeneities.
"The standard inflationary paradigm is based on the General theory of relativity considers space-time as a smooth continuum, says first author, Professor abhai Ashtekar (Abhay Ashtekar), Director of the Institute for gravitation and the cosmos Pennsylvania state. — Shirt fabric also looks like a two-dimensional surface, but upon closer inspection you can see that it is woven from tightly Packed one-dimensional threads. And in the fabric of space-time woven by quantum threads. Given these threads, loop quantum cosmology allows us to go beyond the continuum described by the General theory of relativity".
Scientists hope a new satellite missions such as LiteBIRD and Cosmic Origins Explorer focused on the discovery of traces of primary gravitational waves on the background of the background radiation confirm their findings.