"The blow was terrible:" who attacked the Soviet Union after the Victory in 1945
Transfer powerful groups across the country, a surprise attack and complete defeat of the vast army of the enemy in less than a month — exactly 75 years ago, July 30, 1945, in the far East have formed the Main command of the Soviet troops. A few days began the Manchurian strategic operation. About how the Soviet Union helped the Anglo-American allies to defeat Japan — in the material RIA Novosti.
Focused on the far East, Soviet troops commanded by Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, in early July, arrived in Chita. The actions of the Navy and the air force was coordinated by Admiral of the fleet Nikolai Kuznetsov and air chief Marshal Nikolay Novikov.
At the Yalta conference in February 1945, the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition agreed to the entry of the Soviet Union in the war against Japan after two or three months after Germany's surrender. Washington and London really needed it.
According to scientific Director of the Russian military historical society (RVIA) Mikhail Myagkov, the Japanese tried to negotiate with Moscow and has held several diplomatic maneuvers. But the Soviet Union remained loyal to Alliance obligations.
"The us military believed that the war with Japan would not be completed until 1947, if the US army will storm the metropolis alone, — said the expert. — The loss in this case was estimated at more than a million soldiers and officers. The Soviet entry into the war was necessary to Washington as air."
The neutrality Pact, Moscow and Tokyo signed in April 1941. However, the threat of a Japanese invasion persisted throughout the great Patriotic war. The Japanese, despite the Treaty, developed a war plan against the Soviet Union. Operation "Kanokon" would begin immediately after the completion of the German "Barbarossa". Japan was about a month and a half to destroy the Soviet troops in the far East and to occupy Russia up to Siberia and the Urals.
Why Moscow kept there for a large group. So, he said softly, tanks in the far East was greater than in the army during the battle of Moscow. Personnel — up to a million people. But the onset it was not enough. In 1945 it took across the country to quickly deploy manpower, equipment, fuel and food.
Large-scale redeployment provided the TRANS-Siberian railway. The first trains went to Transbaikalia and the far East in may. For two months, came here almost 150 thousand of wagons with soldiers and cargo. The troops had to make and many kilometers of Hiking marches under extremely difficult conditions — in the steppes and deserts, in the heat, in the dust, in acute water shortage. To supply the group with food and fuel the army corps of engineers built almost fifteen hundred kilometers of roads and dug hundreds of wells.
In early August, formed the three fronts — the TRANS-Baikal, 1st and 2nd far East. Many units commanded by officers who participated in the battles with the Nazis in Europe.
"Commanders in the far East, who wrote petitions to send them to the Western front, as a rule, left in place, — says softly. Now they were replaced with officers with combat experience. For many it was a real tragedy. But then, it was needed people who know how to fight with a certain boldness, a sense of superiority over the enemy".
By early August in areas of the forthcoming hostilities, concentrated about 1.7 million people, thirty thousand artillery guns and mortars, more than five thousand tanks and aircraft not less. Sea land group has supported nearly a hundred warships.
The Kwantung army — the most numerous, powerful, and prepared — occupied Manchuria and North Korea. Soviet troops and units of the Mongolian Armed forces has set the task to surround her, cut to pieces and completely destroy.
Coming opposed to more than thirty infantry divisions, ten infantry brigades, including the brigade of special purpose, formed from specially trained suicide bombers, two armored brigades, two air force, and Navy Patterns. More than one million officers and soldiers, 1,200 tanks, six and a half thousand guns, two thousand planes and dozens of ships.
"The Kwantung army was the most efficient in Japan — said softly. And from Manchuria, the Japanese have gained human resources to support the troops in other theatres of war, it was mined many minerals. Manchuria covered the entire Western flank of the Japanese metropolis. And its loss meant the end of the Empire."
On the border with the Soviet Union and Mongolia, the Japanese have equipped about twenty fortified areas with a width of up to one hundred and fifty miles — four and a half thousand defensive structures. Bunkers and pillboxes, as well as the natural obstacles had to hold back the offensive. In the case of a breach of the Kwantung army departed to Korea. The Imperial generals believed that the Soviet troops would need a year and a half on the seizure of Manchuria and Inner Mongolia. During this time the Japanese wanted to regroup, to shift additional forces and to counterattack, shifting the fighting to the territory of the USSR.
In practice it turned out quite differently. On the night of August 9, Soviet troops attacked Japanese positions from several directions. First, the aircraft bombed on the locations of enemy communication centers in Harbin, Changchun and Jilin. The Pacific fleet struck at the Japanese naval bases in North Korea. Dawn went on the offensive group advanced in three fronts from Mongolia, Transbaikalia, Amur and Primorye.
After a few days the Soviet troops advanced deep into Manchuria in different areas from one hundred to five hundred kilometers. The attack developed so quickly that the rear part behind the fuel, ammunition and supplies had to be transported by aircraft. Nevertheless, the Soviet troops occupied the key cities and fortifications, sweeping one line of defense after another. The Kwantung army suffered huge losses, thousands of Japanese surrendered.
In this situation the command of the Kwantung army asked the Soviet leadership to cease hostilities, and promised that Japanese troops would immediately lay down their arms. However, most of the "kvantuntsev" continued to resist, ignoring the order.
Then the Red army crossed the offensive. Specially formed mobile and well-equipped troops backed by tanks and artillery went forward, without fear of sudden detachment from the main force. In the major cities of Manzhouli — Changchun and Mukden — landed paratroopers. Later, the Marines stormed Port Arthur, Harbin, and Pyongyang. Because of the surprise they quickly disarmed the city garrisons.
The nineteenth of August, Marshal Vasilevsky handed delivered from Harbin to the chief of staff of the Kwantung army an ultimatum to the terms of surrender. Requirements passed in all military units. Caught in a desperate situation, the Japanese began to surrender. However there remain a few powerful centers of resistance, which eliminated only to the end of the month.