The historian said the reason for the failure of the putsch against Hitler in 1944
Error of the conspirators, their indecision and tardiness have led to the fact that the only attempt to overthrow the power of the Nazis in Germany, which was accompanied by an assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944, failed, told RIA Novosti German historian, Professor at the Institute of the Friedrich Meinecke the Free University of Berlin Arnd Bauerkemper.
The conspiracy of July 20, also known as "operation Valkyrie", was planned by high-ranking officers of the Wehrmacht - the army of Nazi Germany. He called for the assassination of Hitler and overthrow the Nazi government. However, the bomb explosion in the rate of the "Wolfschanze" in East Prussia, which led to the deaths of four people, has not solved the problem with the elimination of the Nazi dictator - Hitler was only wounded. Supporting troops of the conspirators in Berlin were not successful. Most of the participants of the conspiracy were executed, their relatives arrested.
On Monday 20 July, on the occasion of the 76th anniversary of the assassination attempt on Hitler, in Berlin will be held a solemn ceremony dedicated to the memory of members of the resistance to the Nazi regime. It involves the Minister of defence of Germany Annegret Kramp-of Karrenbauer, the mayor of Berlin Michael Muller, the Foundation July 20, and relatives of the members of operation "Valkyrie".
"It was a mixture of chance and planning mistakes (which led to the failure - ed). Accidentally managed to activate the second bomb. (Chief of staff of the army reserve Claus von) Stauffenberg planned to activate two bombs in the rate of the "Wolfschanze". But he was interrupted when activating a detonator, in the end it was blown up only one bomb. Another coincidence was that the briefcase with the bomb that he (Stauffenberg) was put under the table with the cards, in the course of the conversation with Hitler was moved by one of the participants of the meeting", - said the German historian.
"Error starting the planning was the fact that Stauffenberg was not only to place the portfolio with two bombs at Hitler's headquarters, but at the same time or immediately thereafter to coordinate the coup attempt in Berlin. When in the afternoon of July 20, he arrived in Berlin, valuable time was lost. It was a mistake - too much depended on one person, the tasks were not distributed among many participants, there was no coordination," said Bauerkemper, adding that after the explosion of a bomb at Hitler's headquarters "in Berlin needed to start", but until the arrival in the capital Stauffenberg "nothing was done".
According to the historian, members of the conspiracy initially had to face problems because many of the officers and commanders of the Wehrmacht "had trouble" at the prospect of being branded as traitors, since they were bound by "an oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler", introduced in the army in 1934. The German military, educated in the spirit of "the Prussian principle", which meant the complete and unquestioning obedience to the higher command, hesitated, and conspirators "understood that they must act quickly to demonstrate early success to win over to their side" potential of associates, he explained.
"It was necessary to kill Hitler. However, in the early evening (20 July 1944), it became clear that Hitler was not dead. It was all over," added Bauerkemper.
Although the Nazi dictator managed to survive and even to stabilize them created in Germany the state system, and "the majority of Germans, as we know from the reports of the security services, welcomed the fact that Hitler survived, expressed support for" his original distrust of the Wehrmacht after the 20 July "significantly increased", said the historian. In particular, after the assassination of military "had to take a personal weapon before meeting with Hitler." Nazi propaganda was very convincing and led to the fact that until the mid 50-ies of the twentieth century "the majority of West Germans have condemned this attack, it was very unpopular," said Bauerkemper, adding that among experts "there is no information about whether there had been such surveys in the GDR".
"Since the mid 50-ies in Germany, the concept has changed, the conspirators introduced themselves as fighters for a democratic Germany, as a member of the resistance against national socialism. Although most of the conspirators was the conservative military, as a rule, not Democrats and did not seek to establish democracy in Germany. Only in 60-ies the question was asked: what do they want? And it quickly became clear that the assassination attempt on 20 July may not be so simple used to legitimize political power in a democratic parliamentary Republic in Germany. Today, in addition to this critical interpretation, talking about the courage of these people who opposed national socialism from a moral and political point of view it is admirable," - said the expert.
Bauerkemper believes that July 20, you can make a day of remembrance for all members of the German resistance under the condition that "it will be a formal occasion", as the very attempt of 20 July 1944 was organized by "one particular group" German senior military officials. He pointed out that "the anti-Nazi resistance was very broad," in particular, "it was socialist resistance, youth resistance, including (a clandestine resistance group created by students of the University of Munich) "the White rose" (informal youth anti-Hitler organization) "pirates of the Edelweiss", up to smaller groups and acts of sabotage on factories and enterprises." Direct communication between these groups and the conspirators 20 of July, there is, therefore, the total honoring these people one day could "somewhat distort the whole perspective," says the historian.