The U.S. President held hundreds of slaves and fought for their freedom
In Portland, the movement for the demolition of monuments "racists" got to the founding fathers. The statue of the third U.S. President, author of Declaration of independence Thomas Jefferson piled on the pedestal, the protesters wrote "slave owner". What a legendary fighter for freedom now so hated in America, understood to RIA Novosti.
"Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, who's next: Washington, Jefferson? Tomfoolery!" — written by Donald trump on Twitter in 2017. Then the country once again escalated the issue of racism and the heritage of the Confederate in Charlottesville intensified the ku Klux Klan.
But no one never thought that a statue of one of founding fathers of America, Thomas Jefferson indeed demolished. Has not passed also two years as a monument to the third President of the United States collapsed in front of the school, named in his honor.
Speaking of Jefferson, I remember the Declaration of independence, the library of Congress his name, two-dollar bill, which is now rarely seen. However, until recently few people in the head came the word "slave owner".
"All men are created free," said Jefferson. And this applied not only to slaves, as it was then interpreted in the South.
In an early version of the Declaration of independence was 168-page a piece of his authorship. There he decried slavery — called "pirate war", "the ugly business", "accumulation of horrors" and "crimes against humanity".
Passionate denunciation of Vice is not convinced by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. The proclamation of Jefferson in the final document are not included. The details of the debate are still not known, the decision was made for economic and political reasons.
The Americans at that time had different ways of looking at the institution of slavery, but his supporters were everywhere. Southerners were in need of labor to the colonial economy based on exports of tobacco, cotton and other crops in Europe, not braked. Merchants from the North were dependent on trade routes Europe — Africa — America, and the transportation of slaves was an important part of this triangle.
That Jefferson contributed to the ban, the Intercontinental slave trade. In 1778 she vetoed in Virginia — first in the world.
The founding fathers shared values of Jefferson. The paradox is that they severely violated the laws of "human nature".
With all the philosophical aversion to slavery and attempts to abolish it legislatively Jefferson owned hundreds of slaves. And several brought to the White house, to those prepared French cuisine. Noticed it in an intellectual environment.
"Is it possible that we hear the loudest calls for freedom from the drivers of Negroes?" — wrote the British essayist Samuel Johnson.
Without slaves to the heir of one of the richest families in America had to be difficult. At 24, he inherited from his father five thousand acres of land and 52 of the slave, and after that laid famous plantation Monticello in Virginia — it is now a world heritage site by UNESCO. The estate was expanded, and with it grew and financial obligations. Freeing slaves meant to abandon the property and assets mentioned in the work of "Thomas Jefferson and the problem of debt" historian Herbert Sloan.
American journalist Henry Uinchek in a resonant book of 2012 on "the dark side of Thomas Jefferson" described the so-called theorem of four percent. One friend who is in a difficult financial situation, the President allegedly advised "to invest in blacks." Then, they say, income from estates every year will grow by four percent — because the slaves give birth to children. Uinchek calls Jefferson "a pioneer in industrialization and diversification of slavery" — the President has made slaves of warranty by providing a huge loan to a Dutch Bank.
However, historian and Professor of law, Harvard University Annette Gordon-reed doubted that such a "theorem" in fact existed. "Uinchek referred to is hardly a true note, which is able to find only the most scrupulous researcher," said she in review.
Uinchek though denounces Jefferson still mentions that he was forbidden to beat black children who worked in the factory of nails in Monticello. However, African-American caretaker still whipped them with a whip. Says Uinchek and on one occasion, when Jefferson did not punish a slave for theft, but it usually is executed.
Many of the statements Wincake professional historians questioned.
For example, the Jefferson, according to some researchers proposed to prepare slaves to a free life gradually. Believed that blacks lag behind whites in terms of intelligence and their mass release would lead to uprisings. This he argued in "Notes on Virginia". Sam Jefferson was released only nine slaves — perhaps it was his own children.
He also didn't want freed slaves allowed to Virginia, fearing the courts Lynch. In his opinion, the former captives followed to exile all of US. For him, white Americans and enslaved blacks were "two separate Nations", pointed out to biographer Jon Meacham's book "Thomas Jefferson. The art of power". Therefore, blacks should be sent to Africa or the West Indies.
"Thus we will restore justice, he noted in a letter to his friend the historian and President of Harvard University Jared sparks. In the long term we probably did them more good than harm."
In "Notes on Virginia," Jefferson explained the plan of deportation. The children had to stay at parents: girls under 18, boys under 21 years. They are supposed to teach according to their abilities: one to prepare for agricultural work, and others — to production.
Scandalous episode in the life of Jefferson communication with the slave concubine Sally Hemings. The girl besides — a distant relative of the founding father, his daughter-in-law and concubines-mulatto. The relationship lasted more than forty years, until the death of Jefferson.
For the first time this was told journalist James Callender in 1802. According to rumors, so he took revenge for the fact that Jefferson did not take it to work. Later information was confirmed by a friend of the President of Elijah Fletcher. "The story of black Sally is not a farce. He cohabits with her, they have common children. And the worst part is that these kids he keeps in slavery — an unnatural crime which is commonplace for the edges" — such notes Fletcher are stored in American archives.
The oldest grandson of President Thomas Jefferson Randolph, in a letter to a friend observed: children Hemings so much like grandpa, that relationship is obvious. He was stupefied to see a servant behind Jefferson — well, a copy of the President. Although later clarified that the children are likely from another relative. But the historian Annette Gordon-reed believes that his grandson was just defending my grandfather, because white men of those times, such a relationship is taboo.
Strong evidence came in 1998, genetics compared the DNA of the descendants of Jefferson's uncle and the son of Sally Hemings. The relationship was confirmed. Two years later, a team of scientists Memorial Fund Thomas Jefferson concluded, with great probability he was the father of all the children of the bondwoman. Historians debate, however, has not stopped.