The historian explained the significance of the Potsdam conference
The Potsdam conference was a unique phenomenon in history when the world powers with different interests and values, uniting against a common enemy, easily came to a consensus at the negotiating table, said to RIA Novosti on the eve of the 75th anniversary of the beginning of the conference, the head of the scientific Department of the Russian military historical society (rvio), Yury Nikiforov.
Conference of the heads of the victorious powers in world war II took place in Potsdam in 20 kilometers from Berlin, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. The Soviet delegation was headed by Joseph Stalin, American — Harry Truman, British — first Winston Churchill and then Clement Attlee.
According to the historian, the conference drew a line in the defeat of Germany in world war II, and its main result, the "Potsdam" was the fact that we managed to prevent the escalation of military cooperation, the highest point of which was passed during the Yalta conference, a confrontation, including military, between allies.
"Germany was defeated, disappeared common goal, and all the contradictions between the allies became more obvious. The efforts of Soviet diplomacy in the first place was designed to be smooth," - said the historian.
According to Nikiforov, the Soviet Union demonstrated its willingness to compromise on a number of economic issues, but in terms of security, firmly insisted.
He noted that the basis was adopted the American plan of complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany.
"Includes full reconstruction of the political life of Germany, including the destruction of the National socialist party, its branches and sub-organizations, the abolition of all Nazi laws and the prosecution of all war criminals. At the same time expected the restoration of local self-government and the creation of national economic departments, which were to serve as the basis for the formation of the German democratic government", - said the head of the scientific Department of RVIA.
According to him, there was an unexpected problem in terms of finding managers who would not be associated with the Nazis, and the solution was never found: the majority of Germans were very loyal to the Nazi regime. Then it was decided that at the first stage the user will maintain the occupation administration.
"The disagreement arose when discussing the issue of reparations — compensation of losers government, the fault which originated the war, for losses incurred by States winners. During the Yalta conference, agreement was reached that Germany was obliged to compensate the damage that it caused during the war. But there remained the question of how to levy and how much," said Nikiforov.
The historian said that the US and USSR managed to work out a compromise, according to which Moscow received reparations from their zone of occupation and for the account of German investments abroad, as well as an additional 25% of industrial equipment from the Western zones. The total amount was 20 billion dollars, of which half was supposed to the Soviet Union. Russian historians still believe that the amount of reparations was unfairly undervalued.
According to him, East Prussia as the most militant part of Germany was dissolved and its land was divided between the Soviet Union and Poland. Königsberg (since 1946, Kaliningrad) with the adjacent area was transferred to the USSR.
"The Germans from a number of devotees to other countries territories were evicted, so at the conference, decisions were made about the orderly movement of German populations from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary", - said the historian.
He noted that serious friction arose in the discussion of a peaceful settlement with some former allies of Germany.
The historian noted that the decisions of the conference were aimed at democratic settlement of the postwar issues and was the Foundation of territorial-political structure on the European continent.
"Historians estimate the Potsdam conference as successful, but noted a certain reticence could be done and more. However, 75 years ago, during the Potsdam conference was set post-war world order, which lasted for several decades", - said Nikiforov.