Russian scientists have learned to identify diseases in blood serum
Scientists from St. Petersburg Polytechnic University Peter the Great (SPbSPU), together with colleagues from Tsinghua University (China) developed a new method of diagnosing diseases based on the analysis of laser light scattering in blood serum. The results of the study were published in first quartile Biology publisher MDPI.
As explained in Spbpu, this method is fast, non-contact, safe, does not require the use of expensive reagents. These benefits, according to scientists, will allow it to be used in screening studies of blood, for example, in the framework of dispanserization.
The scientific team of the Higher school of applied physics and space technology SPbSPU investigated how immune complexes are formed in serum. Immune complexes are molecular aggregates, which consist of antigens, antibodies and proteins of the immune system. The size and concentration of such complexes indicates the status of the human immune system and the organism as a whole. Serum blood in norm there is a certain concentration of immune complexes, but after contact with antigen (abnormal component), the formation of new immune complexes.
International scientific group investigated the sera of donors with different pathologies affecting the immune system (autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, etc.).
Scientists have determined that the increased size of immune complexes indicates the presence of diseases, and in itself can have a potential negative effect on health. Newly formed immune complexes in high concentrations can disrupt the functioning of the organism, clogging the capillaries, deposited in the tissues, causing chronic inflammatory processes.
"We found that in the presence of the organism infection, a large number of large immune complexes", — said the employee of laboratory of laser photometry and spectroscopy of Spbpu Elina forgetful.
Head of the laboratory Elena Velichko believes that the new method is relatively fast, does not require the use of expensive specific antigens. It is based on the interaction of laser radiation with blood serum or blood plasma. "Using the developed method, we were able to trace the path activation of the immune system in the blood. Our results can be used in pharmacology for drug discovery and modern preventive diagnostics of immune diseases," she said.
Research work is conducted together with medical institutions of St. Petersburg. In the future the research group plans to conduct research with fellow biologists to determine what substances and how it affects the activation of the immune system.
Subsequently, the researchers plan to study disorders of the immune system in cancer. The researchers hope to "teach" the immune system to recognize cancer cells and to repair itself.