In RVIO spoke about the naval victory of the XVIII century, which is celebrated in Russia
Victory in the naval battle of Chesme - one of the most extraordinary in military history, so it became the day of military glory in Russia today, it is also associated with the legend of sailor Jack, told RIA Novosti expert of the Russian military historical society (RVIA) Nikita storms.
Russian sailors 250 years ago (July 7, 1770) in Chesmensky sea battle, one of the largest fleets of sailing vessels in the Aegean sea off the West coast of modern Turkey defeated the Ottoman fleet, which had overwhelming numerical and qualitative advantage. At the end of the battle Russia won access to the Black sea and the Mediterranean. Win played an important role in the conclusion of Kuchuk-Kainarji peace Treaty ended the Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774.
The historian said that in the period from 1774 till 1778 for the perpetuation of the feat of Russian sailors in Tsarskoye Selo was built Chesmenskaya column in St. Petersburg Chesme Palace and the Chesme Church St. John the Baptist. In memory of the brilliant victory was cast gold and silver medals. The name "Cesme" wore the squadron battleship of the Russian Navy.
"In the battle of Chesma the enemy's fleet had almost double numerical advantage in forces, in addition, the Turkish ships were significantly superior to the Russians on a number of its characteristics, including the number of guns. It seemed that the chances of winning are almost not there, but Russian sailors attacked with force and was able brilliantly to win", - said the expert of RVIA.
He recalled that the Russian fleet consisted of nine battleships, three frigates, one bombing ship and 17 other vessels and transports General arms about 740 guns. The Turkish fleet consisted of 16 ships of the line, six frigates and about 50 auxiliary vessels from 1430 guns.
"In the battle of Chesma fleet commanded by Admiral Georgi Spiridonov, count Alexei Orlov, who later received an honorary addition to the names – "battle of Chesma" and rear Admiral John Elphinstone, an Englishman, adopted in the Russian service, of patronage," - said the expert.
According to the historian, the battle of Chesma is the clearest example of the destruction of the enemy's fleet in the location of his base.
"Sea battles and the loss of the flagship was forced to flee the Turkish fleet in the Chesma Bay under the protection of shore batteries of the fortress. Council of admirals and commanders, it was decided to block the Turkish fleet in the Bay and burn it there's a fire-ship (vessel loaded with inflammable or explosives)", - said storms.
Expert RVIA said that at the initiative of the Russian admirals were used the following decisive combat techniques, as the concentration of all naval forces against the part of the enemy forces and keeping the fight at extremely short distances, "in the battle of Chesma, a Russian naval commanders was the beginning of the creation of the agile tactics of the Russian fleet".
"The victory of the Russian fleet over twice superior forces of the enemy was achieved through proper selection of the moment to deliver a decisive blow, surprise attack at night and unexpected enemy the use of fire-ships, and incendiary shells. Helped a well-organized interplay of forces and the high morale and fighting qualities of the Russian sailors. But the biggest was the art of the Russian Navy admirals, who boldly refused traditional linear tactics," - said storms.
He said that the results of the battle the Turks in fact lost the entire fleet was burned and sunk 15 Turkish ships of the line, six frigates, and over 40 support vessels, ship of the line "Rhodes", with five galleys were captured, the Ottomans killed 10-11 thousand people. Russian Navy losses in ships had killed 11 sailors.
"After the victory in the Chesma Bay of the situation in the Mediterranean changed dramatically, which has had a major influence on the conclusion of Kuchuk-Kainarji Treaty with the Turks, in which Russia became a full-fledged black sea and Mediterranean power," - said the historian.