Under the Crimea operates a giant desalination plant
Scientists discovered in the Crimea two large underground magma chamber, next to which prisnyatsya sea water. About if it will help the Peninsula to solve the problem of supply — in the material RIA Novosti.
Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Israel provide water by desalination. What prevents to follow their example in the Crimea?
There are three main methods of desalination. The first — thermal distillation — known for thousands of years. Salt water is boiled, vapor is withdrawn from the top, cooling it condenseries and gives fresh water. And the bottom remains concentrated salt solution — brine.
Second — with the use of electricity. Salt ions move through a selectively permeable membrane. The more current, the less salt remains in the water.
The third method — reverse osmosis — is used for industrial purposes. The water passes through the membrane under pressure and salts on the outside.
All three methods are energy-intensive. The resulting cost of water is three times higher than from surface freshwater sources. The rich countries of the Middle East can afford it, Crimea — yet. Users don't have enough money for this water. In addition, it cannot be used for land reclamation.
Some steps in this direction were made. In particular, a pilot desalination plant built near the town of Sudak. A small plant is in the village of Novy Svet.
But there are natural desalination plants. On the coast, over the deep hot magma pockets, often formed system of evaporating salt water and condensing the steam.
Sea water seeps toward the magma and boils. The salt brine out of cracks, and the steam pressure rises and condenseries in porous rocks, or cavities. Formed underground reservoirs. Of them fresh water rushes along the fault zones, not yet breaking the surface.
Natural geothermal desalination system allow all year round, regardless of rain, get a lot of high-quality water for drinking and irrigation. The impact on the environment is minimal, and the cost is very low.
Three such systems are found on the coast of the Black sea, two in the Crimea. The first information about them appeared in 2006-2007, when on the Peninsula led the exploration of oil and gas. Now, scientists said their location and contours, the details of the structure.
Pockets of high temperature zones of underground vaporization with a temperature range from 100 to 200 degrees Celsius — are under AI-Petri plateau at a depth of about two and a half miles. Their diameter is 2.5 and four miles.
At the conclusion of the authors of the study, couples from the area of the boil rises along faults and at depths 930-1100 meters, condenseries in the form of hot 80-85 degrees Celsius — geothermal solutions. Closer to the surface in caverns of limestone and coarse-grained sandstones are formed underground lakes and freshwater lenses with a slight pressure and a temperature of 25-30 degrees. Residual saline geothermal brine expires tectonic fractures of the lower part of the zone of vaporization at depths of 2000-2500 metres.
© Illustration RIA Novosti
"How to operate such systems, we have already seen in other countries. Large volumes of desalinated water usually diverge from the centers of thousands of kilometers, says RIA Novosti, Nikolai Kovalyov of the Sevastopol state University. — Together with the Institute of agriculture of Crimea, we confirmed the presence of fault zones in high-pressure deep fresh water of high quality. As submarine discharge, they are discharged into the Black sea and sea of Azov at the depths of 600-800 meters and a distance of five to ten kilometers from the coast."
Interestingly, many of the exploration wells drilled over twenty years ago, gushing still. Absolutely fresh water — salt less than a gram per liter. At least two villages in the Crimea are supplied with such water, coming from the depths of 500 and 800 meters.
"The fact that we found no sensation, — says Kovalev. — Has long been known that in the Crimea there is deep fresh water. They samoilivna for many years, giving not less than two thousand cubic meters per day, while the debit of conventional wells 100-200 cubic meters."
"Crimea is now about ten villages have no water source, it deliver, — adds the scientist. — And there is no need to build large culverts: it is enough to drill where the break".
Scientists have examined in detail two through underground freshwater streams that come from the Crimean mountains and through 200-300 kilometers drop of water in the sea of Azov. In total, according to preliminary estimates, on a Peninsula about twenty deep tectonic faults, and for each per day flows from one to one and a half million cubic meters of fresh water. It is several times more volumes of extraction from the upper aquifer.
The direction of flow were studied by satellite images, then drove through the countryside with field equipment — nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) the geotomograf. He definitely showed where the fissure and if there is water movement. In addition, the device remotely, to a depth of three kilometers, determined the volumes, temperature and salinity of water masses, and areas of formation of steam and its direction of migration along the horizontal discontinuities or fractured rocks.
The location of faults and groundwater scientists-Geophysics from the Institute of agriculture of Crimea confirmed methods of electrical and magnetic surveys.
Threads dedicated to the two horizons of permeable rocks at depths of about 400 and 1000 meters from the surface. Samples, taken from three existing wells Samoilova showed high water quality and its suitability for drinking. The researchers calculated total head of the flow, based on the location and depth of relief — this data is received, using infrared images from space, which are perfectly visible outputs of fresh water on the sea bottom.
According to scientists, the tectonic faults of the Crimea — potential aquifer channels that do not require financial costs for construction and maintenance. However, to evaluate the reserves, it is still necessary to drill wells.