The historian spoke about the role of the guerrillas in the Victory
The expert of the Russian military historical society (RVIA) Nikita storms told RIA Novosti on the role of guerrillas to Victory in the great Patriotic war.
Ten years ago on June 29 was a memorable date – the Day of partisans and underground fighters. During the great Patriotic war, more than 311 thousand partisans were awarded orders and medals of the USSR, 248 people received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and two of them twice.
"In modern warfare, primarily in local conflicts, to this day, used guerrilla tactics. In one form or another of the guerrilla movement was in all the wars of past centuries, but the largest scale in recent history was achieved in the Soviet Union, partisans and underground fighters during the great Patriotic war there were about a million people," said storms.
According to the historian, the basis to establish a memorable date was that on 29 June 1941 in the Soviet Union came the Directive, which was required to create guerrilla units and sabotage groups to fight the part of the enemy army, to create unbearable conditions for the enemy and its accomplices.
"At the same time in Moscow was created the Central headquarters of the partisan movement. For the first time in the history of warfare, the guerrilla forces under the unified command conducted operations behind enemy lines on a shared plan in close cooperation with units of the army. Thus, the guerrilla movement has ceased to be the spontaneous actions of individual groups and squads. Sustainable management system allowed for consistent, smart and give the result of a strategy to destabilize the rear of the enemy," - said the expert.
The historian said that was also established separate motorized rifle brigade of special purpose NKVD troops for training to guerrilla groups, there is the underground taught then to throw in the enemy's rear. All the years of war behind enemy lines were more than 6 thousand partisan detachments and more than 300 compounds, which fought to a million partisans.
The historian notes that the population widely supported the guerrilla movement. It was the most powerful in Belarus, Orel, Smolensk, Leningrad, and Kalinin (now Tver) oblasts of the RSFSR and the Ukraine.
"On the temporarily occupied by German troops in the USSR in the great Patriotic war in the hard-to-reach enemy areas created a partisan edge, and the zone in which the act of the Soviet government, industrial and agricultural enterprises, schools and medical facilities," said storms.
According to him, partisan formations were created on the principle of voluntariness, however, their composition was quite heterogeneous: they were joined by local residents, but also there were many soldiers that were surrounded or who had escaped from captivity, and some groups consisted entirely of military.
"Was among the partisans and "Bandera" and "forest brothers", who had pursued various nationalist interests, but most, 90 percent of the partisans were on the side of the red army," - said the expert.
The historian noted that the guerrillas are distracted by more than 10% of the land forces of the opponent operating on the Soviet-German front.
"Guerrilla troops committed thousands of acts of sabotage, destroy enemy soldiers and military equipment, disrupting the supply of ammunition, fuel and food, broke the rear communication. Guerrilla forces have caused the enemy great damage: destroyed, wounded and captured about 1 million people, comparable casualties the Germans suffered in the battle of Stalingrad. Instability in the rear affect the morale and combat capability of the enemy," said storms.
According to him, during the war, the guerrillas killed more than a thousand planes knocked out more than 6 thousand tanks and armored vehicles.
"The Germans had created a separate sign for the fight against guerrillas, it has been recognized that fighting guerrillas is equivalent to war on the front. In the Soviet Union in 1943 was established the medal "partisan of the Patriotic war," first and second degree, which had a very high status, in fact, was equivalent to the medal "For military merit". Several hundred thousands of partisans and underground fighters were awarded," said storms.