"I was forbidden to pull the flags of": what did he do with the black sea fleet
Two countries, two armies, one fleet — 25 years ago, on 9 June 1995, Russia and Ukraine signed an agreement to split the black sea fleet and the Ukrainian Navy. Prior to that, since the collapse of the USSR Navy were merged and operated under the Soviet flag. How it is divided and what it led to later — in the material RIA Novosti.
To compromise, the parties came after this followed a long standoff. The black sea fleet became one of the most painful for Russia after the collapse of the USSR and sharply aggravated relations with Ukraine. "Squeeze" him, the Ukrainian authorities have planned in 1991- in October, the Supreme Council of the countries even took the decision on resubordination.
"Ukraine wanted to just eat the black sea fleet, as it did with the three military regions and other formations of the Armed forces of the USSR, — said to RIA Novosti, Admiral Igor Kasatonov, commander of the black sea fleet in the early 1990s. But nothing came of it. I knew that to surrender the fleet or the Crimea and Sevastopol will be lost forever. The fourth of January, 1992, I announced his Russian. The ninth was made by the Ukrainian Parliament at a meeting under the leadership of Kravchuk and calmly said that the Ukrainian Navy to take the oath will not."
In late January, Kasatonov came with a detachment of ships in Novorossiysk, where he met with Boris Yeltsin. The President held on Board the cruiser "Moscow" for six hours. Everyone knew that only one political will in the current situation a little — it is necessary to solve many legal issues. Mechanisms were not, the process stalled for several months.
"The fleet should be maintained in a highly information-psychological war — continues the Admiral. — Ukraine has put all sorts of obstacles. We supported the residents of Sevastopol, veterans and Military Council. On the third of August 1992 took the first political decision of the Russian black sea fleet remains in Sevastopol. Announced a three-year transition period to division vehicles and equipment. This was another watch. I passed".
According to the participant of those events of captain first rank Vyacheslav Ivanov, the situation in the Navy was extremely anxious, sailors aggressively campaigned to pass in the Ukrainian Navy.
"Came to the newspaper "Fleet of Ukraine", — says Ivanov, he served on the minesweeper "Scout" the assistant to the commander (after the division of the fleet went to Ukraine and was renamed as "Cherkasy"). — The authors have promised the respect, good pay, fixed working schedule. The commander of the Crimean naval base of Admiral Boris Kozhin has moved to the other side together with the staff. Called for him and us, there were leaflets, arranged the meeting."
The officer notes that the news about the transfer to the jurisdiction of the Ukrainian Navy, the black sea perceived as a whole, quietly.
"We are told at the end of November 1991, when he returned from a trip, he says. We really did not understand what was happening. Ukraine to fight no one was going. Many believed that she had a large European future. Crimea seemed to be a place of peace, nobody wanted to leave this earth. Especially those who have graduated from the Academy in Kyiv and Sevastopol. But seeing how boldly and brazenly behave the Ukrainian emissaries, the mood has changed."
According to Ivanov, the crews of some ships tried to raise the Ukrainian flag and even voluntarily leave Sevastopol. This is harshly suppressed. Several ships from Russia had to withdraw from the Crimea before the start of the troubles. Among them — the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Admiral Kuznetsov", which is now in the Northern fleet.
"The carrier no one stole things. He left planning December 1, 1991 — a week before the collapse of the Soviet Union, explains Kasatonov. To swimming it was prepared I, on behalf of the black sea presented a new fire truck. The ship is fully manned, supplied with water, food. Appeared on schedule and sailed away, accompanied by two ships passed the Bosphorus. Aircraft on Board was not only helicopters. Commanded Eremin, Vasily Petrovich. I wanted to go, but my commander did not let go. Said, do Navy. And rightly so".
The same type of "Kuznetsov" cruiser "Varyag" by the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union was willing to 85% and went to Ukraine. Later Kiev was sold to China for scrap.
Admiral Kasatonov sure if Russia in those years did not retain the base at Sevastopol, then to return to the Crimea without a war would have not happened. And now the border of Russia and NATO with the Kerch Strait was moved to the Meridian of the Cape Surf to 347 kilometers to the West.
The historic document was signed in Sochi in 1995, clearly delineated areas of responsibility: on the ruins of the Soviet black sea fleet was founded by the Russian black sea fleet and naval forces of Ukraine. In Sevastopol cemented the status of the main base, there were placed and the staff.
Russia was allowed to use naval facilities in the city, as well as the locations and the locations of ship structure, aircraft, coastal armies, objects of operative, fighting, technical and logistical support in the Crimea. In return, Moscow pledged to invest in socio-economic development of Sevastopol and other locations.
The naval assets were divided in half, the ships and vessels — in the ratio of 81.7% — Russia, with 18.3 per cent to Ukraine. Every sailor was given the right to decide which country to serve. Two years later in Kiev signed the final documents, finally determining the status and conditions of stay of the Russian fleet on Ukrainian territory.
Section was delayed for several years and was very painful — the lion's share of the ship's structure was off and cut the metal, imploded a large enterprise serving the Navy, many sailors and their families left the city.
After the return of the Crimea in the spring of 2014 Vladimir Putin signed the Federal law "On termination of the agreements concerning stay of the black sea fleet of the Russian Federation on the territory of Ukraine". All restrictions were lifted.
Now on arms of the world Cup received a new patrol and missile ships, diesel submarines, anti-sabotage and patrol boats, supply vessels. Built a series of new amphibious ships.
After the reconstruction base in Syrian Tartus impact of the fleet spread to the Mediterranean basin. Largely due to the capabilities of the missile complex "Caliber". And although technically winged "Gauges" do not belong to strategic weapons, their appearance on the black sea fleet have drastically altered the regional balance of power in favor of Russia. Media "Caliber" — almost all new surface ships and submarines of the black sea fleet.
Spread your wings and naval aviation. Formed in 2016 to the Crimean airbase novofedorivka wing multi-role fighters su-30CM and su-24MR took control of the entire perimeter of the Black sea. Coastal forces intensified new complexes "Bastion" and "Ball".
Among the priority objectives of the command to gain control over the Eastern part of the Mediterranean sea. In addition, there are plans to expand the area of responsibility of the fleet to the waters of the red sea, Aden and Persian gulfs and the Western part of the Arabian sea.