"Serious reasons": why Russia is moving to the North latest weapons
Strategic and multipurpose nuclear submarines, heavy cruisers, and cruise missiles — the main military force of Russia in the Arctic region has been and remains the Northern fleet. The sailors of the Northern fleet are serving in difficult conditions and learn the most sophisticated weapons, and their ships operate around the world. On the day of the Northern fleet, RIA Novosti says about its capabilities.
"From a strategic point of view, our potential enemy at sea, the United States, explains RIA Novosti Chairman of the Russian national fleet support movement (MEDEF) captain first rank Mikhail Nenashev. — In case of a threat of a nuclear attack with a quick and effective response will come from bases of the Northern fleet. And submarines can shoot straight from the docks".
According to Nenasheva, collectively to the Northern fleet accounts for more than 50 percent of the total striking power of the Navy of Russia. At the disposal of the Northern fleet more than forty nuclear and diesel submarines armed with cruise and ballistic missiles on Board and the same number of surface ships of various purposes. In the North, there are strong anti-submarine aircraft and a developed system of coastal defense.
"The Northern fleet was the first nuclear missile and the first, primarily directed major surface ships, says former SF commander Admiral Vyacheslav Popov. — This is due to its location. The Baltic and black sea, for example, are geographically constrained theater. While Northern — direct access to the ocean. So during the great Patriotic war only the Navy conducted Maritime operations in the Barents and Norwegian seas in the Atlantic. Wasn't locked like the rest, which limited support to ground troops."
In addition, the North is optimal for running the latest marine equipment — there are created all conditions, there are suitable ranges for tests of nuclear submarines, and the geography allows you to use the sea base year-round. Plus test infrastructure — relatively close to the scientific and shipbuilding enterprises of St. Petersburg and Severodvinsk.
It was here, in the North, out to sea the newest nuclear submarines. For example, in 2013 the service took the first underwater nuclear submarine strategic purpose of the project 955 "Borey" "Yury Dolgoruky".
Recently, the Navy handed over the submarine has already improved project 955-A "Borei-A" — "Prince Vladimir". This "strategist" is even more secretive and low noise, with a new means of control, communications, and hydroacoustics. Each Borey carries sixteen ballistic nuclear missiles with a capacity of 900 kilotons each.
The Northern fleet is still operated by the largest underwater ship in the world — the heavy nuclear missile cruiser "Dmitry Donskoy". They have a displacement of about fifty thousand tons, length — more than 170 meters, width — 23 meters. "Don" — the last of the six cruisers of project 941 "Akula", which featured two dozen nuclear ballistic missiles, weighing 90 tons each. After the Soviet collapse two submarines was preserved, and the "Dmitry Donskoy" has been upgraded to test new missile complex "Bulava". The rest of the ships disposed of.
Among the submarines of the new generation it is possible to allocate multi-purpose nuclear submarines of projects "Yasen" and "Yasen-M". The lead ship series "Severodvinsk" in the ranks with 2014. The second is now being tested.
"Ash" is extremely versatile. In their Arsenal of cruise missiles "Caliber", a powerful anti-ship P-800 "Onyx" to destroy much larger ships, and torpedoes. This missile weapon can be combined — submarines capable of operating on surface ships, submarines and ground targets simultaneously.
From submarines of the Soviet production of "Ash" are characterized by low noise. This makes them ideal scouts and hunters carriers.
The flagship of the Northern fleet — the heavy nuclear missile cruiser "Peter the Great" project 1144 "Orlan". It is the largest warship in the world — larger than only carriers. Full displacement — 25,8 thousand tons, length — 250 meters, width — more than 28 meters. Giant run almost 800 sailors. This floating fortress armed with twenty launchers supersonic anti-ship missiles "Granit", anti-aircraft complexes "Wasp" and "Dagger", a long-range system s-300F artillery "Dirk" and AK-630, ASW torpedoes and rocket mortars.
The same type of "Peter the Great", "Admiral Nakhimov" goes deep modernization. Navy plan to transfer to 2023-mu. In fact, the Northern fleet will receive another ship: fully upgrade the life support system, electronic equipment and ship energy. Outdated missile and artillery weapons will be replaced by the modern. "Nakhimov" will be one of the first Navy ships carrier the latest hypersonic missiles "Zircon".
Also for the Northmen build project 22350 frigates are the most advanced equipment for electronic equipment. The first pennant — "Admiral Gorshkov" — handed sailors in 2018. All control systems on the frigate — digital.
The ship is able to carry out combat missions virtually independently and with minimal human intervention. On-Board information management system connects all equipment in a single network, and electronic systems of lighting, surface and underwater environment detects an enemy hundreds of miles away.
The main shock weapons — cruise missiles "Caliber". At air targets working anti-aircraft missile system "Poliment-Redut" and SAM "Broadsword", the boat has a 130-millimeter artillery and torpedo tubes. According to the defense Ministry, the frigate "Admiral series" also will equip the complex "Zircon". The entire Northern fleet will receive three such ships: "Admiral Kasatonov" will be in combat strength this year, "Admiral Golovko" is completed at the wall.
In the early 1930s, the Soviet Union has intensified research activities in the Arctic. At the same time in the North developed military infrastructure. Formed the Northern sea fleet and a few years later it was reorganized into the Navy. But really Sevflot were developed only in the postwar period.
During the cold war, the Northern fleet has acquired strategic importance. In the Northern latitudes lay the trajectory of nuclear Intercontinental ballistic missiles and routes for strategic bombers. They had to reliably cover and at the same time to protect the country from possible missile attacks. That is why the North was the most advanced technology. For example, the Northern fleet received the first Soviet nuclear submarine ("Leninsky Komsomol") and submarine ballistic nuclear missiles.
"Here did the largest ships ocean zone and missile weapons, because there is where to shoot, — said Popov. The ships of the Baltic fleet, even in our time in training and combat shooting are transferred to the Northern fleet".
The Arctic was and is strategically important, the region has enormous military and political significance. If a hundred years ago, the threat did not come from there, because there was such long-range weapons, and now the Arctic direction is the most important in ensuring the security of the country.